International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy

Volume 16 Num. 1 - March 2016


Relations between positive psychotic symptoms and ideas of reference observation and communication

Volume 16 Num. 1 - March 2016 - Pages 23-33


Cristina Senín Calderón , Juan F. Rodríguez Testal , Salvador Perona Garcelán , Miguel Ruiz Veguilla , María M. Medina García


The ideas of reference (IOR) are observable in varied psychopathological manifestations, although predominate in psychotic disorders. We tried to study the IOR according to their content (observation, communication, and other IOR). We tried to determine if these kinds of IOR are separable, and also to observe their relationship with some positive symptoms. Participated 364 patients (39 participants with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders). The instruments used were the Referential Thinking Scale (REF) and BPRS rating-scale. Statistically significant differences between the observation and communication IOR were found, and also between the communication IOR and other IOR. Significant positive correlations between observation IOR and grandiosity were reached, and between observation IOR and suspicion (persecution delusion in BPRS). The observation IOR are rather indicator of delusional severity in general than a specific content of psychopathology, and this kind of IOR are not restricted to the persecutory delusions.

Key words:

ideas of reference, self-references, observation, communication, psychotic symptoms.

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